projected
The report on the 1912 survey work was issued in 1916.
Department of Lands and Survey, Fiji.
2007-02-06
true
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/3140
Viti Levu 1912 / Viti Levu Grid
For topographic mapping, replaced by Fiji 1956 / UTM (CRS codes 3141-42). For other purposes, replaced by Fiji 1986 / Fiji Map Grid (CRS code 3460).
Fiji - Viti Levu island.
177.19
178.75
-18.32
-17.25
OGP
2014-05-01
false
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/0/3195
Fiji - Viti Levu
Large topographic mapping, cadastral and engineering survey.
conversion
Department of Lands and Survey, Fiji.
2006-07-19
true
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/coordinateOperation/EPSG/0/19879
Viti Levu Grid
Original definition is in chains (1 chain = 100 links).
Fiji - Viti Levu island.
177.19
178.75
-18.32
-17.25
OGP
2014-05-01
false
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/0/3195
Fiji - Viti Levu
Topographic mapping, engineering and cadastral survey.
ISO 1000.
1995-06-02
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/uom/EPSG/0/9001
metre
Also known as International metre. SI standard unit.
length
0
EPSG guidance note #7-2, http://www.epsg.org
1996-09-18
false
true
For Projected Coordinate System Trinidad 1903 / Trinidad Grid
Parameters:
Ellipsoid Clarke 1858 a = 20926348 ft = 31706587.88 links
b = 20855233 ft
then 1/f = 294.97870 and e^2 = 0.00676866
Latitude Natural Origin 10°26'30"N = 0.182241463 rad
Longitude Natural Origin 61°20'00"W = -1.07046861 rad
False Eastings FE 430000.00 links
False Northings FN 325000.00 links
Forward calculation for:
Latitude 10°00'00.00" N = 0.17453293 rad
Longitude 62°00'00.00"W = -1.08210414 rad
A = -0.01145876 C = 0.00662550
T = 0.03109120 M = 5496860.24 nu = 31709831.92 M0 = 5739691.12
Then Easting E = 66644.94 links
Northing N = 82536.22 links
Reverse calculation for same easting and northing first gives :
e1 = 0.00170207 D = -0.01145875
T1 = 0.03109544 M1 = 5497227.34
nu1 = 31709832.34 mu1 = 0.17367306
phi1 = 0.17454458 rho1 = 31501122.40
Then Latitude = 10°00'00.000"N
Longitude = 62°00'00.000"W
http://www.opengis.net/def/method/EPSG/0/9806
Cassini-Soldner
Note: These formulas have been transcribed from EPSG Guidance Note #7-2. Users are encouraged to use that document rather than the text which follows as reference because limitations in the transcription will be avoided.
The formulas to derive projected Easting and Northing coordinates are:
Easting E = FE + nu[A - TA^3/6 -(8 - T + 8C)TA^5/120]
Northing N = FN + M - M0 + nu*tan(lat)*[A^2/2 + (5 - T + 6C)A^4/24]
where A = (lon - lon0)cos(lat)
T = tan^2(lat)
C = e2 cos2*/(1 - e2) nu = a /(1 - esq*sin^2(lat))^0.5
and M, the distance along the meridian from equator to latitude lat, is given by
M = a[(1 - e^2/4 - 3e^4/64 - 5e^6/256 -....)*lat - (3e^2/8 + 3e^4/32 + 45e^6/1024 +....)sin(2*lat) + (15e^4/256 + 45e^6/1024 +.....)sin(4*lat) - (35e^6/3072 + ....)sin(6*lat) + .....]
with lat in radians.
M0 is the value of M calculated for the latitude of the chosen origin. This may not necessarily be chosen as the equator.
To compute latitude and longitude from Easting and Northing the reverse formulas are:
lat = lat1 - (nu1tan(lat1)/rho1)[D2/2 - (1 + 3*T1)D^4/24]
lon = lon0 + [D - T1*D^3/3 + (1 + 3*T1)T1*D^5/15]/cos(lat1)
where lat1 is the latitude of the point on the central meridian which has the same Northing as the point whose coordinates are sought, and is found from:
lat1 = mu1 + (3*e1/2 - 27*e1^3/32 +.....)sin(2*mu1) + (21*e1^2/16 - 55*e1^4/32 + ....)sin(4*mu1)+ (151*e1^3/96 +.....)sin(6*mu1) + (1097*e1^4/512 - ....)sin(8*mu1) + ......
where
e1 = [1- (1 - esq)^0.5]/[1 + (1 - esq)^0.5]
mu1 = M1/[a(1 - esq/4 - 3e^4/64 - 5e^6/256 - ....)]
M1 = M0 + (N - FN)
T1 = tan^2(lat1)
D = (E - FE)/nu1
2
2
-18
EPSG guidance note number 7.
1999-09-09
false
The latitude of the point from which the values of both the geographical coordinates on the ellipsoid and the grid coordinates on the projection are deemed to increment or decrement for computational purposes. Alternatively it may be considered as the latitude of the point which in the absence of application of false coordinates has grid coordinates of (0,0).
http://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/0/8801
Latitude of natural origin
178
Abbeviated as "CM".
Abbreviation for "Central Meridian".
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2002-06-22
false
The longitude of the point from which the values of both the geographical coordinates on the ellipsoid and the grid coordinates on the projection are deemed to increment or decrement for computational purposes. Alternatively it may be considered as the longitude of the point which in the absence of application of false coordinates has grid coordinates of (0,0). Sometimes known as "central meridian (CM)".
http://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/0/8802
Longitude of natural origin
544000
This alias applies only in the case of projection methods which have an axis positive west, e.g. Transverse Mercator (South Orientated).
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2002-07-31
false
Since the natural origin may be at or near the centre of the projection and under normal coordinate circumstances would thus give rise to negative coordinates over parts of the mapped area, this origin is usually given false coordinates which are large enough to avoid this inconvenience. The False Easting, FE, is the value assigned to the abscissa (east or west) axis of the projection grid at the natural origin.
http://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/0/8806
False easting
704000
This alias applies only in the case of projection methods which have an axis positive south, e.g. Transverse Mercator (South Orientated).
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2002-07-31
false
Since the natural origin may be at or near the centre of the projection and under normal coordinate circumstances would thus give rise to negative coordinates over parts of the mapped area, this origin is usually given false coordinates which are large enough to avoid this inconvenience. The False Northing, FN, is the value assigned to the ordinate (north or south) axis of the projection grid at the natural origin.
http://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/0/8807
False northing
geographic 2D
The report on the 1912 survey work was issued in 1916.
Department of Lands and Survey, Fiji.
2006-07-30
true
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4752
Viti Levu 1912
For topographic mapping, replaced by Fiji 1956 (CRS code 4721). For other purposes, replaced by Fiji 1986 (CRS code 4720).
Fiji - Viti Levu island.
177.19
178.75
-18.32
-17.25
OGP
2014-05-01
false
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/0/3195
Fiji - Viti Levu
Geodetic survey.
ellipsoidal
OGP
2008-06-23
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/cs/EPSG/0/6422
Ellipsoidal 2D CS. Axes: latitude, longitude. Orientations: north, east. UoM: degree
Coordinates referenced to this CS are in degrees. Any degree representation (e.g. DMSH, decimal, etc.) may be used but that used must be declared for the user by the supplier of data. Used in geographic 2D coordinate reference systems.
http://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/0/106
Lat
north
http://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/0/107
Long
east
geodetic
The survey network adjustment of 1912 was published in 1916.
Clifford J. Mugnier in Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, October 2000, www.asprs.org.
2008-06-24
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/datum/EPSG/0/6752
Viti Levu 1912
For topographic mapping, replaced by Fiji 1956. For other purposes, replaced by Fiji 1986.
Geodetic survey, cadastre, topographic mapping, engineering survey.
Latitude origin was obtained astronomically at station Monavatu = 17°53'28.285"S, longitude origin was obtained astronomically at station Suva = 178°25'35.835"E.
1912-01-01
Cartesian
OGP
2006-07-19
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/cs/EPSG/0/4533
Cartesian 2D CS. Axes: northing, easting (X,Y). Orientations: north, east. UoM: lk.
Used in projected and engineering coordinate reference systems.
http://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/0/180
X
north
http://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/0/179
Y
east