projected
US National Snow and Ice Data Center.
2009-06-02
true
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/3411
NSIDC Sea Ice Polar Stereographic North
The datum is unspecified. Uncertainty in location of over 1 km may result; at the coarse resolution and very small scales for which this system should be used this uncertainty may be insignificant. See CRS 3413 for geodetically preferred alternative.
Northern hemisphere - north of 60°N onshore and offshore, including Arctic.
-180
180
60
90
OGP
2011-05-09
false
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/0/1996
World - N hemisphere - north of 60°N
Polar research. Used for small scale mapping of DMSP SSM/I microwave satellite imagery.
conversion
US National Snow and Ice Data Center
2006-12-14
true
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/coordinateOperation/EPSG/0/19865
US NSIDC Sea Ice polar stereographic north
Used in polar research.
Northern hemisphere - north of 60°N onshore and offshore, including Arctic.
-180
180
60
90
OGP
2011-05-09
false
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/0/1996
World - N hemisphere - north of 60°N
Delivery of DMSP SSM/I microwave imagery products.
ISO 1000.
1995-06-02
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/uom/EPSG/0/9001
metre
Also known as International metre. SI standard unit.
length
0
EPSG guidance note #7-2, http://www.epsg.org
2010-07-13
true
false
true
For Projected Coordinate Reference System: WGS 84 / Australian Antarctic Polar Stereographic
Parameters:
Ellipsoid: WGS 84
a = 6378137.0 metres 1/f = 298.2572236
then e = 0.081819191
Latitude of standard parallel (latF): 71°00'00.000"S = -1.239183769 rad
Longitude of origin (lonO): 70°00'00.000"E = 1.221730476 rad
False easting (FE): 6000000.00 metres
False northing (FN): 6000000.00 metres
Forward calculation for:
Latitude (lat) = 75°00'00.000"S = -1.308996939 rad
Longitude(lon) = 120°00'00.000"E = 2.094395102 rad
tF = 0.168407325
mF = 0.326546781
ko = 0.97276901
t = 0.132508348
pho = 1638783.238
whence
E = 7255380.79 m
N = 7053389.56 m
Reverse calculation for the same Easting and Northing (7255380.79 E, 7053389.56 N) first gives:
tF = 0.168407325 mF = 0.326546781 and ko = 0.97276901
then rho' = 1638783.236 t' = 0.132508347 chi = -1.3073146
Then Latitude (lat) = 75°00'00.000"S
Longitude (lon) = 120°00'00.000"E
http://www.opengis.net/def/method/EPSG/0/9829
Polar Stereographic (variant B)
Note: These formulas have been transcribed from EPSG Guidance Note #7-2. Users are encouraged to use that document rather than the text which follows as reference because limitations in the transcription will be avoided.
First calculate the scale factor at natural origin:
for the south pole case
tF = tan (pi/4 + latF/2) / {[(1 + e sin(latF)) / (1 ? e sin(latF))]^(e/2)}
but for the north pole case
tF = tan (pi/4 - latF/2) * {[(1 + e sin(latF)) / (1 ? e sin(latF))]^(e/2)}
then for both cases
mF = cos(latF) / (1 ? e^2 sin^2(latF))^0.5
ko = mF {[(1+e)^(1+e) (1?e)^(1?e)]0.5} / (2 tF)
The forward and reverse conversions then follow the formulae for the
Polar Stereographic (variant A) method:
For the forward conversion from latitude and longitude, for the south pole case
E = FE + rho * sin(lon ? lonO)
N = FN + rho * cos(lon ? lonO)
where
t = tan(pi/4 + lat/2) / {[(1 + e sin(lat)) / (1 ? e sin(lat))]^(e/2)}
rho = 2*a*ko*t / {[(1+e)^(1+e) (1?e)^(1?e)]^0.5}
For the north pole case,
rho and E are found as for the south pole case but
t = tan(pi/4 ? lat/2) * {[(1 + e sin(lat)) / (1 ? e sin(lat))]^(e/2)}
N = FN ? rho * cos(lon ? lonO)
For the reverse conversion from easting and northing to latitude and longitude,
lat = chi + (e^2/2 + 5e^4/24 + e^6/12 + 13e^8/360) sin(2 chi)
+ (7e^4/48 + 29e^6/240 + 811e^8/11520) sin(4 chi)
+ (7e^6/120 + 81e^8/1120) sin(6 chi) + (4279e^8/161280) sin(8 chi)
where rho' = [(E-FE)^2 + (N ? FN)^2]^0.5
t' =rho' {[(1+e)^(1+e) * (1? e)^(1-e)]^0.5} / (2 a ko)
and for the south pole case
chi = 2 atan(t' ) ? pi/2
but for the north pole case
chi = pi/2 - 2 atan t'
Then for for both north and south cases if E = FE, lon = lonO
else for the south pole case
lon = lonO + atan2[(E ? FE),(N ? FN)]
and for the north pole case
lon = lonO + atan2[(E ? FE),(FN ? N)]
70
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2003-09-22
false
For polar aspect azimuthal projections, the parallel on which the scale factor is defined to be unity.
http://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/0/8832
Latitude of standard parallel
-45
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2003-09-22
false
For polar aspect azimuthal projections, the meridian along which the northing axis increments and also across which parallels of latitude increment towards the north pole.
http://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/0/8833
Longitude of origin
0
This alias applies only in the case of projection methods which have an axis positive west, e.g. Transverse Mercator (South Orientated).
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2002-07-31
false
Since the natural origin may be at or near the centre of the projection and under normal coordinate circumstances would thus give rise to negative coordinates over parts of the mapped area, this origin is usually given false coordinates which are large enough to avoid this inconvenience. The False Easting, FE, is the value assigned to the abscissa (east or west) axis of the projection grid at the natural origin.
http://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/0/8806
False easting
0
This alias applies only in the case of projection methods which have an axis positive south, e.g. Transverse Mercator (South Orientated).
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2002-07-31
false
Since the natural origin may be at or near the centre of the projection and under normal coordinate circumstances would thus give rise to negative coordinates over parts of the mapped area, this origin is usually given false coordinates which are large enough to avoid this inconvenience. The False Northing, FN, is the value assigned to the ordinate (north or south) axis of the projection grid at the natural origin.
http://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/0/8807
False northing
geographic 2D
US National Snow and Ice Data Center
2006-09-22
false
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4054
Unspecified datum based upon the Hughes 1980 ellipsoid
DMSP SSM/I data sets provided by NSIDC for polar research.
Not specified.
-180
180
-90
90
OGP
2000-06-23
false
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/0/1263
Not specified
Data sets from US Defence Meteorological Satellite Program SSM/I microwave sensors.
ellipsoidal
OGP
2008-06-23
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/cs/EPSG/0/6422
Ellipsoidal 2D CS. Axes: latitude, longitude. Orientations: north, east. UoM: degree
Coordinates referenced to this CS are in degrees. Any degree representation (e.g. DMSH, decimal, etc.) may be used but that used must be declared for the user by the supplier of data. Used in geographic 2D coordinate reference systems.
http://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/0/106
Lat
north
http://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/0/107
Long
east
geodetic
OGP
2006-09-22
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/datum/EPSG/0/6054
Not specified (based on Hughes 1980 ellipsoid)
Included for coordinate reference systems where datum is unknown.
Not a valid datum.
Cartesian
OGP
2008-06-23
false
http://www.opengis.net/def/cs/EPSG/0/4468
Cartesian 2D CS for north polar azimuthal lonO 45°W. Axes: X,Y. Orientations: X along 45°E, Y along 135°E meridians. UoM: m.
Used for North Pole tangential and secant projections.
http://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/0/191
X
South along 45°E
http://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/0/192
Y
South along 135°E