projected
IGM Italy.
2016-03-30
true
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/9.6.1/7791
RDN2008 / UTM zone 32N
Replaces IGM95 / UTM zone 32N (CRS code 3064) from 2011-11-10. See RDN2008 / UTM zone 32N (N-E) (CRS code 6707) for similar CRS with north-east axis order used for topographic mapping and engineering purposes.
Italy - onshore and offshore - west of 12°E.
5.94
12
36.53
47.04
OGP
2012-01-05
false
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/9.6.1/1718
Italy - west of 12°E
GIS.
conversion
1995-12-02
true
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/coordinateOperation/EPSG/9.6.1/16032
UTM zone 32N
Between 6°E and 12°E, northern hemisphere between equator and 84°N, onshore and offshore.
6
12
0
84
OGP
2011-05-09
false
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/9.6.1/1935
World - N hemisphere - 6°E to 12°E
Large and medium scale topographic mapping and engineering survey.
Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), www.bipm.org
2018-05-29
true
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/uom/EPSG/9.6.1/9001
metre
SI base unit for length.
length
0
EPSG guidance note #7-2, http://www.epsg.org
2012-02-13
true
false
true
For Projected Coordinate System OSGB 1936 / British National Grid
Parameters:
Ellipsoid Airy 1830 a = 6377563.396 m 1/f = 299.32496
then e'^2 = 0.00671534 and e^2 = 0.00667054
Latitude of natural origin (LatO) = 49°00'00"N = 0.85521133 rad
Longitude of natural origin (LonO) = 2°00'00"W = -0.03490659 rad
Scale factor (ko) = 0.9996013
False Eastings (FE) = 400000.00 m
False Northings (FN) = -100000.00 m
Forward calculation for:
Latitude = 50°30'00.00"N = 0.88139127 rad
Longitude = 00°30'00.00"E = 0.00872665 rad
Constants of the projection:
n = 0.00167322
B = 6366914.609
h1 = 0.0008347452
h2 = 0.0000007554
h3 = 1.18487E-09
h4 = 2.40864E-12
QO = 0.9787671618
ξO0 = 0.8518980373
ξO1 = 0.0008273732
ξO2 = -0.0000001986
ξO3 = -1.0918E-09
ξO4 = 1.2218E-12
Mo = 5429228.602
Q = 1.0191767215
β = 0.8781064142
η0 = 0.0278629616
ξ0 = 0.8785743280
η1 = -0.0000086229
ξ1 = 0.0008215669
η2 = -0.0000000786
ξ2 = -0.0000002768
η3 = 1.05551E-10
ξ3 = -1.01855E-09
η4 = 3.97791E-13
ξ4 = 1.67447E-12
η = 0.0278542603
ξ = 0.8793956171
Then
Easting E = 577274.99 metres
Northing N = 69740.50 metres
Reverse calculation for same easting and northing first gives:
h1' = 0.0008347455
h2' = 0.0000000586
h3' = 1.65563E-10
h4' = 2.13692E-13
Then
ξ' = 0.87939562
η' = 0.0278542603
ξ1' = 0.0008213109
η1' = -0.0000086953
ξ2' = -0.0000000217
η2' = -0.0000000061
ξ3' = -1.41881E-10
η3' = 1.486E-11
ξ4' = 1.49609E-13
η4' = 3.50657E-14
ξ0' = 0.8785743280
η0' = 0.0278629616
β' = 0.8781064142
Q' = 1.0191767215
Q" 1st iteration = 1.0243166838
Q" 2nd iteration = 1.0243306667
Q" 3rd iteration = 1.0243307046
Q" 4th iteration = 1.0243307047
Then
Latitude (Lat) = 50°30'00.000"N
Longitude (Lon) = 00°30'00.000"E
https://www.opengis.net/def/method/EPSG/9.6.1/9807
Transverse Mercator
Note: These formulas have been transcribed from EPSG Guidance Note #7-2. Users are encouraged to use that document rather than the text which follows as reference because limitations in the transcription will be avoided.
For the calculation of easting and northing from latitude and longitude, first calculate constants for the projection:
n = f / (2-f)
B = [a/(1+n)] (1 + n^2/4 + n^4/64)
h1 = n/2 – (2/3)n^2 + (5/16)n^3 + (41/180)n^4
h2 = (13/48)n^2 – (3/5)n^3 + (557/1440)n^4
h3 = (61/240)n^3 – (103/140)n^4
h4 = (49561/161280)n^4
Then the meridional arc distance from equator to the projection origin (Mo) is computed from:
If LatO = 0 then Mo = 0
else if LatO ≡ 90°N ≡ π/2 radians
Mo = B (π/2)
else if LatO ≡ 90°S ≡ -π/2 radians
Mo = B (-π/2)
else
Qo = asinh(tan LatO) – [e atanh(e sin LatO)]
βo = atan(sinh Qo)
ξO0 = asin (sin βo)
Note: The previous two steps are taken from the generic calculation flow given below for latitude Lat, but here for LatO may be simplified to ξO0 = βo = atan(sinh Qo).
ξO1 = h1 sin(2ξOo)
ξO2 = h2 sin(4ξOo)
ξO3 = h3 sin(6ξOo)
ξO4 = h4 sin(8ξOo)
ξO = ξO0+ ξO1+ ξO2+ ξO3+ ξO4
Mo = B ξO
end
Note: if the projection grid origin is very close to the pole (within 2" or 50m), the tangent function in the equation for Qo is unstable and may fail. Mo may instead be calculated as:
Mo = a[(1 – e^2/4 – 3e^4/64 – 5e^6/256 –....)LatO – (3e^2/8 + 3e^4/32 + 45e^6/1024+....)sin2LatO
+ (15e^4/256 + 45e^6/1024 +.....)sin4LatO – (35e^6/3072 + ....)sin6LatO + .....]
with LatO in radians.
Then
Q = asinh(tan Lat) – [e atanh(e sin Lat)]
β = atan(sinh Q)
η0 = atanh [cos β sin(Lon – LonO)]
ξ0 = asin (sin β cosh η0)
ξ1 = h1 sin(2ξ0) cosh(2η0)
η1 = h1 cos(2ξ0) sinh(2η0)
ξ2 = h2 sin(4ξ0) cosh(4η0)
η2 = h2 cos(4ξ0) sinh(4η0)
ξ3 = h3 sin(6ξ0) cosh(6η0)
η3 = h3 cos(6ξ0) sinh(6η0)
ξ4 = h4 sin(8ξ0) cosh(8η0)
η4 = h4 cos(8ξ0) sinh(8η0)
ξ = ξ0 + ξ1 + ξ2 + ξ3 + ξ4
η = η0 + η1 + η2 + η3 + η4
and
Easting, E = FE + ko B η
Northing, N = FN + ko (B ξ – Mo)
For the reverse formulas to convert Easting and Northing projected coordinates to latitude and longitude first calculate constants of the projection where n is as for the forward conversion, as are B and Mo:
h1' = n/2 – (2/3)n^2 + (37/96)n^3 – (1/360)n^4
h2' = (1/48)n^2 + (1/15)n^3 – (437/1440)n^4
h3' = (17/480)n^3 – (37/840)n^4
h4' = (4397/161280)n^4
Then
η' = (E – FE) / (B ko)
ξ' = [(N – FN) + ko Mo] / (B ko)
ξ1' = h1' sin(2ξ') cosh(2η')
η1' = h1' cos(2ξ') sinh(2η')
ξ2' = h2' sin(4ξ') cosh(4η')
η2' = h2' cos(4ξ') sinh(4η')
ξ3' = h3' sin(6ξ') cosh(6η')
η3' = h3' cos(6ξ') sinh(6η')
ξ4' = h4' sin(8ξ') cosh(8η')
η4' = h4' cos(8ξ') sinh(8η')
ξ0' = ξ' – (ξ1' + ξ2' + ξ3' + ξ4')
η0' = η' – (η1' + η2' + η3' + η4')
β' = asin(sin ξ0' / cosh η0')
Q' = asinh(tan β')
Q" = Q' + [e atanh(e tanh Q')] = Q' + [e atanh(e tanh Q")] which should be iterated until the change in Q" is insignificant. Then
Lat = atan(sinh Q")
Lon = LonO + asin(tanh(η0') / cos β')
0
EPSG guidance note number 7.
1999-09-09
false
The latitude of the point from which the values of both the geographical coordinates on the ellipsoid and the grid coordinates on the projection are deemed to increment or decrement for computational purposes. Alternatively it may be considered as the latitude of the point which in the absence of application of false coordinates has grid coordinates of (0,0).
https://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/9.6.1/8801
Latitude of natural origin
9
Abbeviated as "CM".
Abbreviation for "Central Meridian".
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2002-06-22
false
The longitude of the point from which the values of both the geographical coordinates on the ellipsoid and the grid coordinates on the projection are deemed to increment or decrement for computational purposes. Alternatively it may be considered as the longitude of the point which in the absence of application of false coordinates has grid coordinates of (0,0). Sometimes known as "central meridian (CM)".
https://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/9.6.1/8802
Longitude of natural origin
0.9996
EPSG guidance note number 7.
1999-09-09
false
The factor by which the map grid is reduced or enlarged during the projection process, defined by its value at the natural origin.
https://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/9.6.1/8805
Scale factor at natural origin
500000
This alias applies only in the case of projection methods which have an axis positive west, e.g. Transverse Mercator (South Orientated).
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2002-07-31
false
Since the natural origin may be at or near the centre of the projection and under normal coordinate circumstances would thus give rise to negative coordinates over parts of the mapped area, this origin is usually given false coordinates which are large enough to avoid this inconvenience. The False Easting, FE, is the value assigned to the abscissa (east or west) axis of the projection grid at the natural origin.
https://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/9.6.1/8806
False easting
0
This alias applies only in the case of projection methods which have an axis positive south, e.g. Transverse Mercator (South Orientated).
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2002-07-31
false
Since the natural origin may be at or near the centre of the projection and under normal coordinate circumstances would thus give rise to negative coordinates over parts of the mapped area, this origin is usually given false coordinates which are large enough to avoid this inconvenience. The False Northing, FN, is the value assigned to the ordinate (north or south) axis of the projection grid at the natural origin.
https://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/9.6.1/8807
False northing
geographic 2D
OGP. See 3D CRS for original information source.
2014-01-19
true
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/9.6.1/6706
RDN2008
Replaces IGM95 (CRS code 4670) from 2011-11-10.
Italy - onshore and offshore; San Marino, Vatican City State.
5.93
18.99
34.76
47.1
OGP
2014-05-01
false
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/9.6.1/3343
Italy - including San Marino and Vatican
Horizontal component of 3D system.
ellipsoidal
OGP
2015-05-22
true
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/cs/EPSG/9.6.1/6422
Ellipsoidal 2D CS. Axes: latitude, longitude. Orientations: north, east. UoM: degree
Coordinates referenced to this CS are in degrees. Any degree representation (e.g. DMSH, decimal, etc.) may be used but that used must be declared for the user by the supplier of data. Used in geographic 2D coordinate reference systems.
https://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/9.6.1/106
Lat
north
https://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/9.6.1/107
Lon
east
geodetic
IGM Italy
2014-01-21
true
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/datum/EPSG/9.6.1/1132
Rete Dinamica Nazionale 2008
Adopted as official Italian reference datum 10/11/2011. Replaces IGM95 (datum code 6670).
Geodetic survey, topographic mapping.
Italian densification of ETRS89 realised through network of 99 permanent reference stations in ETRF2000@2008.0.
2008-01-01
Cartesian
OGP
2001-04-29
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/cs/EPSG/9.6.1/4400
Cartesian 2D CS. Axes: easting, northing (E,N). Orientations: east, north. UoM: m.
Used in projected and engineering coordinate reference systems.
https://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/9.6.1/1
E
east
https://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/9.6.1/2
N
north