projected
S-42 is ambiguous as it is used as a name for several CRSs.
ANCPI
2008-09-24
true
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/9.9.1/3844
Pulkovo 1942(58) / Stereo70
Romania - onshore and offshore.
20.26
31.41
43.44
48.27
ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency. ftp://ftp.fu-berlin.de/pub/doc/iso
2014-05-01
false
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/9.9.1/1197
Romania
RO
ROU
642
Non-military large and medium scale topographic mapping and engineering survey.
conversion
1996-04-12
true
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/coordinateOperation/EPSG/9.9.1/19926
Stereo 70
Replaces Stereo 33 (code 19927).
Romania - onshore and offshore.
20.26
31.41
43.44
48.27
ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency. ftp://ftp.fu-berlin.de/pub/doc/iso
2014-05-01
false
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/9.9.1/1197
Romania
RO
ROU
642
Large and medium scale topographic mapping and engineering survey.
Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), www.bipm.org
2018-05-29
true
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/uom/EPSG/9.9.1/9001
metre
SI base unit for length.
length
0
EPSG guidance note #7-2, http://www.epsg.org
2018-08-29
true
false
true
For Projected Coordinate System RD / Netherlands New
Parameters:
Ellipsoid Bessel 1841 a = 6377397.155 m 1/f = 299.15281
then e = 0.08169683
Latitude Natural Origin 52°09'22.178"N = 0.910296727 rad
Longitude Natural Origin 5°23'15.500"E = 0.094032038 rad
Scale factor k0 0.9999079
False Eastings FE 155000.00 m
False Northings FN 463000.00 m
Forward calculation for:
Latitude 53°N = 0.925024504 rad
Longitude 6°E = 0.104719755 rad
first gives the conformal sphere constants:
rho0 = 6374588.71 nu0 = 6390710.613
R = 6382644.571 n = 1.000475857 c = 1.007576465
where S1 = 8.509582274 S2 = 0.878790173 w1 = 8.428769183
sin chi0 = 0.787883237
w = 8.492629457 chi0 = 0.909684757 D0 = d0
for the point chi = 0.924394997 D = 0.104724841
hence B = 1.999870665 N = 557057.739 E = 196105.283
reverse calculation for the same Easting and Northing first gives:
g = 4379954.188 h = 37197327.96 i = 0.001102255 j = 0.008488122
then D = 0.10472467 Longitude = 0.104719584 rad = 6 deg E
chi = 0.924394767 psi = 1.089495123
phi1 = 0.921804948 psi1 = 1.084170164
phi2 = 0.925031162 psi2 = 1.089506925
phi3 = 0.925024504 psi3 = 1.089495505
phi4 = 0.925024504
Then Latitude = 53°00'00.000"N
Longitude = 6°00'00.000"E
https://www.opengis.net/def/method/EPSG/9.9.1/9809
Oblique Stereographic
This is not the same as the projection method of the same name in USGS Professional Paper no. 1395, "Map Projections - A Working Manual" by John P. Snyder.
Note: These formulas have been transcribed from EPSG Guidance Note #7-2. Users are encouraged to use that document rather than the text which follows as reference because limitations in the transcription will be avoided.
Given the geodetic origin of the projection at the tangent point (lat0, lon0), the parameters defining the conformal sphere are:
R= sqrt( rho0 * nu0)
n= {1 + [e^2 * cos^4(latC) / (1 - e^2)]}^0.5
c= [(n+sin(lat0)) (1-sin(chi0))]/[(n-sin(lat0)) (1+sin(chi0))]
where:
sin(chi0) = (w1-1)/(w1+1)
w1 = (S1.(S2)^e)^n
S1 = (1+sin(lat0))/(1-sin(lat0))
S2 = (1-e sin(lat0))/(1+e sin(lat0))
The conformal latitude and longitude (chi0,lambda0) of the origin are then computed from :
chi0 = asin[(w2-1)/(w2+1)]
where S1 and S2 are as above and w2 = c (S1(S2)^e)^n
lambda0 = lon0
For any point with geodetic coordinates (lat, lon) the equivalent conformal latitude and longitude (chi, lambda) are computed from
lambda = n(lon-lambda0) + lambda0
chi = asin[(w-1)/(w+1)]
where w = c (Sa (Sb)^e)^n
Sa = (1+sin(lat))/(1-sin(lat))
Sb = (1-e.sin(lat))/(1+e.sin(lat))
Then B = [1+sin(chi) sin(chi0) + cos(chi) cos(chi0) cos(lambda-lambda0)]
N = FN + 2 R k0 [sin(chi) cos(chi0) - cos(chi) sin(chi0) cos(lambda-lambda0)] / B
E = FE + 2 R k0 cos(chi) sin(lambda-lambda0) / B
The reverse formulae to compute the geodetic coordinates from the grid coordinates involves computing the conformal values, then the isometric latitude and finally the geodetic values.
The parameters of the conformal sphere and conformal latitude and longitude at the origin are computed as above. Then for any point with Stereographic grid coordinates (E,N) :
chi = chi0 + 2 atan[{(N-FN)-(E-FE) tan (j/2)} / (2 R k0)]
lambda = j + 2 i + lambda0
where g = 2 R k0 tan(pi/4 - chi0/2)
h = 4 R k0 tan(chi0) + g
i = atan2[(E-FE) , {h+(N-FN)}]
j = atan2[(E-FE) , (g-(N-FN)] - i
(see GN7-2 implementation notes in preface for atan2 convention)
Geodetic longitude lon = (lambda-lambda0 ) / n + lambda0
Isometric latitude psi = 0.5 ln [(1+ sin(chi)) / { c (1- sin(chi))}] / n
First approximation lat1 = 2 atan(e^psi) - pi/2 where e=base of natural logarithms.
psii = isometric latitude at lati
where psii= ln[{tan(lati/2 + pi/4} {(1-e sin(lati))/(1+e sin(lati))}^(e/2)]
Then iterate lat(i+1) = lati - ( psii - psi ) cos(lati) (1 -e^2 sin^2(lati)) / (1 - e^2)
until the change in lat is sufficiently small.
For Oblique Stereographic projections centred on points in the southern hemisphere, the signs of E, N, lon0, lon, must be reversed to be used in the equations and lat will be negative anyway as a southerly latitude.
An alternative approach is given by Snyder, where, instead of defining a single conformal sphere at the origin point, the conformal latitude at each point on the ellipsoid is computed. The conformal longitude is then always equivalent to the geodetic longitude. This approach is a valid alternative to the above, but gives slightly different results away from the origin point. It is therefore considered by EPSG to be a different coordinate operation method to that described above.
46
EPSG guidance note number 7.
1999-09-09
false
The latitude of the point from which the values of both the geographical coordinates on the ellipsoid and the grid coordinates on the projection are deemed to increment or decrement for computational purposes. Alternatively it may be considered as the latitude of the point which in the absence of application of false coordinates has grid coordinates of (0,0).
https://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/9.9.1/8801
Latitude of natural origin
25
Abbeviated as "CM".
Abbreviation for "Central Meridian".
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2002-06-22
false
The longitude of the point from which the values of both the geographical coordinates on the ellipsoid and the grid coordinates on the projection are deemed to increment or decrement for computational purposes. Alternatively it may be considered as the longitude of the point which in the absence of application of false coordinates has grid coordinates of (0,0). Sometimes known as "central meridian (CM)".
https://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/9.9.1/8802
Longitude of natural origin
0.99975
EPSG guidance note number 7.
1999-09-09
false
The factor by which the map grid is reduced or enlarged during the projection process, defined by its value at the natural origin.
https://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/9.9.1/8805
Scale factor at natural origin
500000
This alias applies only in the case of projection methods which have an axis positive west, e.g. Transverse Mercator (South Orientated).
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2002-07-31
false
Since the natural origin may be at or near the centre of the projection and under normal coordinate circumstances would thus give rise to negative coordinates over parts of the mapped area, this origin is usually given false coordinates which are large enough to avoid this inconvenience. The False Easting, FE, is the value assigned to the abscissa (east or west) axis of the projection grid at the natural origin.
https://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/9.9.1/8806
False easting
500000
This alias applies only in the case of projection methods which have an axis positive south, e.g. Transverse Mercator (South Orientated).
EPSG guidance note number 7.
2002-07-31
false
Since the natural origin may be at or near the centre of the projection and under normal coordinate circumstances would thus give rise to negative coordinates over parts of the mapped area, this origin is usually given false coordinates which are large enough to avoid this inconvenience. The False Northing, FN, is the value assigned to the ordinate (north or south) axis of the projection grid at the natural origin.
https://www.opengis.net/def/parameter/EPSG/9.9.1/8807
False northing
geographic 2D
Adjustment completed in 1956.
Locally densified in participating countries at differing times during 1957 and 1958.
This name is ambiguous as it is also used for several CRSs.
EuroGeographics; http://crs.bkg.bund.de/crs-eu/ and other industry sources.
2008-09-24
true
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/9.9.1/4179
Pulkovo 1942(58)
Shares same origin definition as Pulkovo 1942 (CRS code 4284) and for low accuracy purposes these systems can be considered consistent with each other. Locally densified during 1957 and 1958. Replaced by 1983 adjustment (CRS code 4178).
Onshore: Bulgaria, Czechia, Germany (former DDR), Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Onshore and offshore: Albania and Romania.
9.92
31.41
39.63
54.89
OGP
2019-05-17
false
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/area/EPSG/9.9.1/3574
Europe - onshore - eastern - S-42(58)
Countries forming the former Warsaw Pact.
Geodetic survey.
https://www.opengis.net/def/cs/EPSG/9.9.1/6422
Ellipsoidal CS: North (°), East (°).
https://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/9.9.1/106
Geodetic latitude
lat
north
-90.0
90.0
exact
https://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/9.9.1/107
Geodetic longitude
lon
east
-180.0
180.0
wraparound
geodetic
Glowny Urzad Geodezji i Kartografii via EuroGeographics; http://crs.bkg.bund.de/crs-eu/
2008-09-24
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/datum/EPSG/9.9.1/6179
Pulkovo 1942(58)
1956 international adjustment of Uniform Astro-Geodetic Network of countries of central and eastern Europe. Locally densified during 1957 and 1958.
Geodetic survey, cadastre, topographic mapping, engineering survey.
Fundamental point: Pulkovo observatory. Latitude: 59°46'18.550"N, longitude: 30°19'42.090"E (of Greenwich).
1956-01-01
Cartesian
OGP
2001-04-29
false
https://www.opengis.net/def/cs/EPSG/9.9.1/4530
Cartesian 2D CS. Axes: northing, easting (X,Y). Orientations: north, east. UoM: m.
Used in projected and engineering coordinate reference systems.
https://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/9.9.1/48
X
north
https://www.opengis.net/def/axis/EPSG/9.9.1/47
Y
east